Analysis of heat dissipation performance of high-power LED lights

LED lights are energy-saving and environmentally friendly, but they are prone to generate a lot of heat during actual operation. Once the heat cannot be discharged, it is easy to cause abnormal heat of the chip due to excessive temperature, light source degradation, and reduced lamp life. [1] In simple terms, the thermal management structure of LED lamps is mainly chip-level packaging, packaging level and system integrated heat dissipation level. This article analyzes the factors affecting the heat dissipation performance of LED lamps and proposes specific optimization schemes.

Heat dissipation performance of high-power LED lights

1. Factors affecting the heat dissipation performance of high-power LED lights

1.1 Fin geometric parameters
Generally speaking, the fin parameter changes of high-power LED lamps will directly affect the heat dissipation performance, showing a positive correlation. Before reaching the rated value, the increase in the thickness, height, spacing, number, and length of the fins of high-power LED lamps will lead to the improvement of heat dissipation efficiency. A similar conclusion was obtained in the article “Research on Radiator Performance” [2]. The heat dissipation effect of one fin on the upper surface is significantly lower than the heat dissipation effect of the four side fins.

1.2 The influence of outside temperature
A large amount of heat will appear during the working process of high-power LED lights, which need to be discharged in time. Therefore, when the temperature of the outside temperature and the temperature of the high-power LED lights are large, it is easy to discharge heat, and vice versa. When it is large, it will affect the heat dissipation of the LED lamp. This temperature effect is limited, but it greatly impacts the optimal heat dissipation efficiency of LEDs.

1.3 Heat dissipation materials of LED lights
The choice of heat dissipation materials such as high-power LEDs has a significant impact on heat dissipation. Generally, materials with good performance and good heat conduction are used for heat dissipation in natural conditions. The heat dissipation efficiency of LEDs, etc. will be higher, and the heat radiation heat dissipation method needs to be selected as specialized materials.

2. High-power LED lamp heat dissipation performance analysis and optimization plan

2.1 Optimization of heat dissipation structure
The optimization of the heat dissipation structure of the high-power LED lamp must first optimize the fin structure. According to the simulation model’s data and results, the fin’s height and length are analyzed. Generally speaking, the ceramic height of the high-power LED lamp is usually 0.05- In the range of 0.11m, the heat dissipation performance in this range is the best. It can be further divided in the range of 0.05-0.11m. Generally speaking, in the range of 0.071-0.11m, when the fin height reaches this height, The chip temperature tends to be flat, and in the range of 0.05-0.07m, when the fin height is within this range, the chip temperature fluctuates greatly, so the height range of the fin should be controlled to obtain higher chip heat dissipation performance. In addition, in terms of fin length, the most suitable range is 0.03-0.12m, which is also the first choice for fin lengths such as high-power LEDs.

On the other hand, the gaps and through-holes are the connection channels of the light source area of ​​the LED lamp, and the LED substrate is the place with the highest temperature in the whole lamp. The substrate, and for other excess heat, is mainly removed through the heat sink channel. In this way, according to the specific situation of the high-power LED lamp, the internal structure and module of the LED lamp can be modified to find and measure the optimal solution. Realize the data statistics of heat distribution, to formulate the parameters of notches and through holes according to the actual situation, and the number of fins is generally set according to 12-16, mainly the highest value of fin heat dissipation is calculated, and the combination of fins The method of setting and spacing increases the maximum value of heat dissipation, and realizes the high performance of fin heat dissipation at one time.

2.2 Material selection
The selection of LED lamp materials is very important. It is necessary to analyze the working environment and heat dissipation requirements of high-power LED lamps, and continue to expand new high-performance heat dissipation materials. [3] At present, the heat dissipation materials of high-power LED lamps are mainly silver, aluminum, and aluminum alloys, supplemented by other new materials. First of all, traditional silver, aluminum, aluminum alloy, and other materials are relatively cost-effective, so they are widely used in the market. Traditional heat dissipation materials mainly have differences in thermal conductivity, and thermal conductivity and heat dissipation efficiency show a positive correlation. According to the thermal conductivity of mines, the thermal conductivity of silver is the highest, which determines that it can effectively reduce the surface thermal resistance and improve the overall thermal conductivity. However, from the cost point of view, the purchase cost of silver is relatively high, and from the perspective of its performance, the flexibility of silver is insufficient performance and insufficient hardness. Therefore, at present, aluminum, aluminum alloy, and copper are the main materials for high-power LEDs. Existing LEDs usually use aluminum as the main heat dissipation material, and some copper will be added appropriately, which is relatively cost-effective. In addition, in recent years, the development of new LED heat dissipation materials has been continuously improved, and new heat dissipation materials have also made great progress, which further expands the application of LED lights in different working environments, such as MAP-05 heat dissipation material suitable for high temperature and low pressure. It is a very good development direction. In addition, with the development of electronic equipment and the changes in the working environment of high-power LED lamps, the performance and shape of heat dissipation materials have been continuously introduced, and great progress has been made.

2.3 Performance optimization
The performance of high-power LED lights must be optimized before design and production. Temperature experiments and data statistics must be done to design products with the most optimized performance in different work scenarios. In the test process, the performance optimization of high-power LED lights must be set according to the working performance of the test environment, equipment, etc., and the optimal solution is found through simulation tests. During the test process, the temperature must be kept constant and the most simulated Optimal results of the LED lamp in a good state, to adjust the performance and achieve the optimization of performance through the adjustment of materials and structure. At present, high-power LED lights are designed to perform temperature tests to test the specific performance of the LED lights. Of course, the test results will have a certain deviation, but the overall data distribution law is not much different. If the data distribution law is quite different, you need to Rethink whether there are other problems in the simulation, such as the temperature is not constant, the voltage line is unstable, etc.

3. Summary

The heat dissipation performance of high-power LED lights is mainly accomplished by optimizing the heat dissipation structure and heat dissipation materials. In the design process of LED lights, the specific working environment must be considered, the best heat dissipation materials must be selected, and simulation experiments must be done at the same time to adjust the structure of the LED lights to ensure the high performance of the heat dissipation of the LED lights.

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